How to make your home more energy efficient

In recent years, the quest for energy efficiency within the home has transitioned from a mere suggestion to an essential aspect of modern living, especially for UK homeowners. Amidst escalating energy costs and a heightened awareness of environmental impacts, making your home more energy-efficient has never been more important. This necessity is underscored by the dual benefits of significantly reducing household energy bills and contributing to a much-needed reduction in global carbon emissions. Additionally, enhancing your home’s energy efficiency can lead to an increase in property value, making it a wise investment for the future.

The UK government’s commitment to slashing greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, in line with the Paris Agreement, has further illuminated the importance of personal responsibility in this collective effort. As energy prices continue to rise, driven by fluctuating global markets and the push towards renewable energy sources, homeowners are seeking practical ways to make their living spaces more energy-efficient. This guide aims to provide comprehensive insights into achieving greater energy efficiency in your home, from simple fixes to major renovations, each step contributing to a more sustainable and cost-effective living environment. By understanding and implementing the strategies outlined in this article, UK homeowners can enjoy the twin rewards of lower energy bills and a reduced carbon footprint, all while paving the way for a greener, more sustainable future.

Understanding your energy usage

Before embarking on any energy-saving measures, it’s crucial to have a clear understanding of your current energy usage. This knowledge forms the foundation upon which effective, targeted actions can be built to enhance your home’s energy efficiency. Here are key steps and considerations for UK homeowners to accurately assess and understand their energy consumption patterns:

Conducting an energy audit

An energy audit is an invaluable first step. It involves a detailed assessment of your home’s energy use, identifying areas where energy can be saved. Some UK energy companies offer free audits, or you could hire a professional energy assessor. The audit will cover aspects such as insulation, heating systems, and electrical appliances, providing a comprehensive overview of where improvements can be made.

Understanding energy performance certificates (EPC)

In the UK, an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) provides information about a property’s energy use and typical energy costs. It also offers recommendations for reducing energy consumption. An EPC is required whenever a property is built, sold, or rented. Reviewing your home’s EPC can reveal crucial insights into potential energy-saving measures. If your property doesn’t have a current EPC, consider obtaining one to gain a detailed understanding of its energy performance.

Monitoring energy consumption

Modern technology has made monitoring energy consumption easier than ever. Smart meters and energy monitoring apps can provide real-time information about your energy use, allowing you to identify peak usage times and wasteful practices. By regularly reviewing this data, you can adjust your habits and settings (such as thermostat levels) to optimise energy use.

Identifying key energy consumers

Certain appliances and systems are known to be heavy energy consumers, such as electric heating systems, water heaters, and older, inefficient appliances. Pinpointing which devices or systems are using the most energy in your home can guide you towards making the most impactful changes.

Setting baselines and goals

After assessing your current energy usage, set realistic goals for reduction. Whether it’s a percentage decrease in your energy bills or achieving a specific energy efficiency rating, having clear targets will motivate and guide your efforts.

Educating household members

Energy efficiency is a collective effort. Educate everyone in your household about the importance of saving energy and the specific measures you’re implementing. Simple actions, like turning off lights when leaving a room or reducing water usage, can collectively lead to significant savings.
By thoroughly understanding your home’s energy usage and setting informed goals, you’re laying a solid foundation for making targeted improvements. This not only streamlines the process of enhancing your home’s energy efficiency but also ensures that your efforts and investments are directed where they will have the greatest impact.

Insulation and draught proofing

One of the most effective ways to enhance your home’s energy efficiency is by focusing on insulation and draught-proofing. These measures prevent heat loss, keeping your home warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer, and can significantly reduce your energy consumption and bills. Here’s how UK homeowners can tackle these aspects:

Upgrading insulation

Loft insulation: A significant amount of heat is lost through the roof. Upgrading your loft insulation to the recommended depth of 270mm can prevent heat escape, making your home more energy-efficient.

Wall insulation: Depending on the type of walls your home has, consider cavity wall insulation or solid wall insulation. Cavity wall insulation involves filling the gap between the external and internal walls, which can greatly reduce heat loss.

Floor insulation: Insulating under floorboards on the ground floor can save you a notable amount on your energy bills. For homes with suspended floors, ensuring that all gaps are sealed can prevent draughts and heat loss.

Draught proofing

Draught-proofing is one of the most cost-effective ways to save energy and money in any home. Here are key areas to focus on:

Windows and doors: Seal gaps around windows and doors to stop cold air from entering and warm air from escaping. Consider using draught-excluding strips around movable joints and brush seals for the bottom of doors.

Chimneys and fireplaces: If you don’t use your fireplace, consider using a chimney draught excluder or fitting a cap over the chimney pot to block out cold draughts.

Floor gaps and skirting boards: Seal gaps between floorboards and around skirting boards with a sealant specifically designed for this purpose. Even small gaps can let a lot of cold air in.

Double glazing and secondary glazing

Double glazing: Installing double-glazed windows can significantly reduce heat loss through windows, contributing to a warmer, more energy-efficient home.

Secondary glazing: If replacing windows is not an option, secondary glazing can be an effective alternative. It involves adding another layer of glass or plastic inside existing windows to improve insulation.

The benefits of insulation and draught proofing

Reduced energy bills: By maintaining a more consistent indoor temperature, your heating system won’t have to work as hard, leading to lower energy bills.

Increased comfort: Insulation and draught-proofing make your home more comfortable by eliminating cold spots and draughts.

Environmental impact: Reducing the amount of energy needed to heat your home lowers your carbon footprint, contributing to environmental conservation.

Implementing these insulation and draught-proofing measures can transform your home into a bastion of energy efficiency. While some upgrades may require an initial investment, the savings on energy bills and the increase in property value, along with the added comfort and environmental benefits, make them well worth considering for any UK homeowner.

Heating and hot water

Heating and hot water account for a significant portion of home energy usage in the UK. Making smart choices in this area can lead to substantial savings on your energy bills and greatly enhance your home’s energy efficiency. Here are essential strategies and upgrades to consider:

Upgrading your boiler

High-efficiency boilers: If your boiler is old and inefficient, upgrading to a new, high-efficiency model can make a significant difference in energy use. Modern condensing boilers are far more efficient than older models, as they have the ability to use a lot of the heat energy that older boilers might waste.

Boiler servicing: Regular servicing ensures your boiler is running as efficiently as possible and can extend its lifespan. An annual check by a certified professional can keep it operating at peak efficiency.

Smart thermostats and heating controls

Smart thermostats: These devices allow you to control your heating remotely via a smartphone app, meaning you can adjust your heating settings from anywhere, ensuring you’re only heating your home when necessary.

Programmable thermostats: Installing a programmable thermostat can save energy by automatically reducing heating during times when you’re asleep or away from home.

Zoned heating: This involves dividing your home into different zones (areas) that can be heated independently. It’s especially efficient in larger homes where heating needs vary throughout the house.

Water heating efficiency

Insulate hot water cylinders: If you have a hot water tank, insulating it can keep water hotter for longer, reducing the need for constant reheating.

Eco-friendly shower heads: Low-flow shower heads can significantly reduce water usage without compromising your shower experience. They use less hot water, saving energy.

Use of timers: Installing timers on your water heater can ensure that it only operates when you need hot water, avoiding unnecessary energy use.

Utilising renewable energy

Solar water heating: Solar thermal panels can be used to heat your water with energy from the sun, reducing your reliance on gas or electricity. This can be particularly cost-effective during the sunnier months.

Heat pumps: An alternative to traditional boilers, heat pumps extract heat from the air, ground, or water outside your home and use it to heat your home and water. They are more efficient than traditional heating systems and can significantly reduce your home’s carbon footprint.

The impact of efficient heating and hot water systems

Cost savings: Efficient heating and hot water systems can drastically reduce your energy bills by minimising wastage and optimising energy use.

Environmental benefits: By reducing the amount of energy needed for heating and hot water, you’ll also be lowering your home’s carbon emissions, contributing to a healthier environment.

Enhanced comfort: Advanced heating controls and systems provide a more consistent and comfortable indoor climate, improving your living conditions.

Adopting these strategies not only contributes to a more sustainable and energy-efficient home but also aligns with the UK’s broader environmental goals. While some solutions may require upfront investment, the long-term savings and comfort they provide make them a worthwhile consideration for any homeowner looking to reduce their energy usage and environmental impact.

Lighting and appliances

The efficiency of the lighting and appliances in your home plays a crucial role in your overall energy consumption. In the UK, making informed choices about these can lead to significant energy savings. Here’s how to optimise your lighting and appliances for maximum energy efficiency:

Switching to LED lighting

LED bulbs: Replace incandescent and halogen bulbs with LED bulbs, which use at least 75% less energy and last 25 times longer. This simple switch can result in substantial savings on your electricity bills.

Smart lighting: Consider installing smart lighting systems that can be controlled remotely or programmed to turn off automatically, ensuring lights aren’t left on unnecessarily.

Energy-efficient appliances

Energy rating labels: When purchasing new appliances, look for the energy rating label. In the UK, appliances are rated on a scale from A (most efficient) to G (least efficient). Choosing A-rated appliances can significantly reduce your energy consumption.

Size matters: Choose the size of the appliance appropriate for your needs. Larger appliances typically consume more energy, so opting for a smaller, more efficient model can lead to savings.

Advanced features: Look for appliances with eco-friendly features or modes that reduce energy consumption, such as the eco-wash setting on dishwashers or variable temperature settings on refrigerators.

Reducing appliance energy use

Full loads: Run your dishwasher and washing machine only when they are full to maximise energy efficiency per cycle.

Lower temperature washing: Washing clothes at lower temperatures can save a considerable amount of energy over time, as a significant portion of the energy used by washing machines goes into heating the water.

Unplug or use power strips: Many appliances continue to draw power even when they’re turned off, known as standby power. Unplug appliances when not in use or use power strips to turn off multiple devices at once.

The benefits of energy-efficient lighting and appliances

Reduced energy bills: The immediate benefit of switching to energy-efficient lighting and appliances is the reduction in electricity bills due to decreased energy consumption.

Environmental impact: By consuming less energy, you’re also reducing your carbon footprint, contributing to the global effort to combat climate change.

Long-term savings: Although energy-efficient appliances might come with a higher upfront cost, their lower operating costs translate to significant savings over their lifespan.

Embracing energy-efficient lighting and appliances is a straightforward yet effective step toward a more sustainable home. With the advancements in technology, UK homeowners now have numerous options to reduce their energy consumption without sacrificing convenience or functionality. As we continue to strive for a greener future, making these smart choices becomes not just beneficial, but essential for both our pockets and the planet.

Renewable energy sources

Integrating renewable energy sources into your home is a powerful step toward achieving greater energy independence and sustainability. For UK homeowners, this not only contributes to reducing the national carbon footprint but also offers long-term savings on energy costs. Here’s how you can harness renewable energy:

Solar panels

Photovoltaic (PV) panels: These panels convert sunlight into electricity. Installing solar PV panels on your roof can significantly reduce your electricity bills, as you’ll be generating your own power during daylight hours.

Government incentives: Look into the Smart Export Guarantee (SEG) scheme, which allows you to earn money for excess energy that you export back to the grid.

Wind turbines

Domestic wind turbines: While less common than solar panels, small wind turbines can be an effective way to generate your own electricity, especially in rural or exposed areas. The feasibility and efficiency depend on your location and the local wind speed average.

Heat pumps

Air Source and Ground Source Heat Pumps: These systems extract heat from the air or ground outside your home to heat it and provide hot water. They can be more efficient than traditional heating systems and are supported by the UK government’s Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI).

Solar water heating

Thermal Panels: Solar thermal panels can be used to heat water in your home. This system works by circulating a fluid through panels on your roof, where it gets heated by the sun, and then transferring this heat to your water supply.

Biomass heating systems

Biomass Boilers and Stoves: These systems use organic materials, such as wood pellets, chips, or logs, to provide heating and hot water. Biomass is considered a renewable source of energy because the carbon dioxide emitted when the biomass is burned is offset by the CO2 absorbed during the plant’s growth.

Benefits of using renewable energy

Reduced energy bills: Generating your own electricity or heat means you’ll be less reliant on the grid, protecting you from rising energy costs.

Environmental impact: Renewable energy sources emit little to no greenhouse gases during operation, making them a clean alternative that contributes to reducing your carbon footprint.

Financial incentives: The UK government offers various schemes to support the adoption of renewable energy, such as the RHI and SEG, making it more financially viable for homeowners.

Considerations for implementing renewable energy

Initial investment: Installing renewable energy systems requires an upfront investment. However, the long-term savings and potential earnings can offset these costs.

Property suitability: Not all properties are suitable for every type of renewable energy. Factors such as roof space, orientation, and local climate can affect the feasibility and efficiency of installations.

Adopting renewable energy sources is a forward-thinking choice that aligns with global sustainability goals and offers practical benefits for homeowners. By exploring these options and taking advantage of available incentives, UK homeowners can make a significant impact on their energy consumption, bills, and environmental footprint.

Water saving measures

Water conservation is a crucial aspect of making your home more energy-efficient. In the UK, saving water not only reduces your water bill (for those on a water meter) but also decreases your energy costs, as a significant amount of home energy is used to heat water. Here are effective water-saving measures that can have a big impact:

Install water-efficient fixtures

Low-flow showerheads: These reduce water flow without compromising your shower experience. By using less hot water, you save on both water and energy costs.

Tap aerators: Fitting aerators on taps adds air into the water stream, reducing water use while maintaining water pressure.

Dual-flush toilets: These allow you to choose a full or reduced flush, significantly cutting down on water use over time.

Use appliances wisely

Eco-friendly dishwashers and washing machines: Modern, efficient models use less water and energy. Always full load your dishwasher and washing machine to maximise efficiency, and choose the eco setting if available.

Fix leaks promptly: A dripping tap or a leaking toilet can waste a significant amount of water over time. Fixing leaks promptly can save both water and money.

Harvest rainwater

Rainwater Harvesting Systems: Installing a system to collect and store rainwater for use in your garden or for flushing toilets can reduce your mains water usage significantly.

Be water wise in the garden

Water-butts: Collecting rainwater in a water-butt for garden use reduces the demand for tap water.

Drought-resistant plants: Opt for garden plants that require less watering and use mulch to reduce evaporation rates from the soil.

Heat water more efficiently

Insulate hot water pipes: This can keep your hot water hotter for longer, reducing the need to reheat water as often.

Solar water heating: Consider integrating solar thermal systems to heat your water using the power of the sun, further reducing energy consumption.

The benefits of water conservation

Reduced utility bills: Using less water means lower water and energy bills, as you’re also reducing the need to heat water.

Environmental impact: Water treatment and distribution, as well as heating water, require energy and contribute to CO2 emissions. Using less water reduces this energy demand and your carbon footprint.

Sustainable living: Conserving water is a key aspect of living more sustainably and ensuring that this precious resource is available for future generations.

Water conservation is intrinsically linked to energy efficiency. By adopting these measures, UK homeowners can not only save on their utility bills but also contribute to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly way of living. Simple changes and upgrades can have a significant impact on reducing water and energy consumption in the home.

Financial support and incentives

In the UK, there are several financial support schemes and incentives available to help homeowners improve the energy efficiency of their homes:

Boiler upgrade scheme: This scheme offers grants to help cover the cost of installing low-carbon heating systems, such as heat pumps, in England and Wales.

Energy company obligation (ECO): This UK-wide initiative requires energy suppliers to help low-income households improve their home’s energy efficiency, primarily through measures like insulation and heating upgrades.

Home upgrade grant (HUG): Targeted at low-income households, particularly those off the gas grid in England, this grant supports the installation of energy efficiency measures and low carbon heating solutions.

Social housing decarbonisation fund (SHDF): Aimed at improving the energy efficiency of socially rented homes, this fund helps bring properties up to higher energy performance standards.

Smart export guarantee (SEG): This ensures that small-scale energy generators in England, Scotland, and Wales are compensated for the renewable electricity they export back to the grid.

Local and regional initiatives: Various local authorities and regional governments offer additional grants and support, such as the Welsh Government Warm Homes Nest scheme, which provides advice and support for making homes warmer and more energy-efficient.

Great British insulation scheme: This scheme provides funding for insulation improvements, helping to reduce energy bills.

Navigating the options

When considering these schemes, it’s important to:

Stay informed: Schemes can change, and new ones may be introduced. Regularly check official government and local authority websites for the latest information.

Assess eligibility: Carefully review the eligibility criteria for each scheme, as they can vary widely.

Calculate long-term benefits: Consider both the immediate financial support and the long-term savings on energy bills when deciding which measures to implement.

Financial support and incentives play a critical role in making home energy efficiency upgrades more accessible to UK homeowners. By taking advantage of these opportunities, you can not only improve your home’s comfort and reduce your energy bills but also contribute to the broader environmental goal of reducing carbon emissions. For detailed and up-to-date information on these programs and to check your eligibility, it’s best to visit official government websites or consult with local authorities.

Find out more from: Energy Saving Trust.

Long-term strategies for energy efficiency

Adopting a long-term perspective towards home energy efficiency is essential for UK homeowners aiming to reduce their environmental impact, save on energy costs, and enhance the comfort of their living spaces. Sustainable energy use involves more than just short-term fixes; it requires ongoing commitment and strategic planning. Here are key long-term strategies to consider:

Regular maintenance and upgrades

Scheduled servicing: Ensure that heating systems, boilers, and appliances are serviced regularly according to manufacturer guidelines. This keeps them running efficiently and can extend their lifespan.

Upgrade appliances: As appliances reach the end of their useful life, prioritise replacing them with high-efficiency models. This applies to everything from boilers to refrigerators.

Integrating smart home technology

Home energy management systems: These systems allow you to monitor and control energy usage more effectively, identifying areas for improvement and automating energy-saving measures.

Invest in smart meters and thermostats: Utilising smart meters and thermostats can provide valuable insights into your energy consumption patterns, enabling you to adjust habits and settings to optimise energy use.

Home renovations and extensions

Energy-efficient design: When planning home renovations or extensions, incorporate energy-efficient design principles. Consider aspects such as natural light, insulation, and materials to minimise energy consumption.

Renewable energy systems: If you’re undertaking significant renovations, it’s an opportune time to integrate renewable energy systems, such as solar panels or heat pumps, into your home.

Landscaping for energy efficiency

Strategic planting: Use landscaping to your advantage by planting trees or shrubs that can provide shade in the summer, reducing the need for air conditioning and act as windbreaks in the winter, reducing heating costs.

Green roofs and walls: Consider installing green roofs or walls to improve insulation, reduce rainwater runoff, and enhance biodiversity.

Engaging with community energy Projects

Community solar projects: Participating in community energy projects, such as community solar power schemes, can provide access to renewable energy for those unable to install their own systems.

Energy co-operatives: Joining or forming an energy co-operative can offer opportunities for shared investment in larger renewable energy installations, benefiting the wider community.

Education and lifestyle changes

Stay informed: Keeping abreast of the latest energy-saving technologies and practices can inspire further improvements to your home’s energy efficiency.

Adopt energy-saving habits: Encourage all household members to adopt energy-saving habits, such as turning off lights when leaving a room and reducing water usage.

The importance of a long-term approach

Cost savings: Investing in energy efficiency pays off over time, with reduced energy bills and potential increases in property value.

Environmental impact: Long-term strategies contribute significantly to reducing your carbon footprint, supporting global efforts to combat climate change.

Enhanced comfort and health: Energy-efficient homes not only save money but also offer improved indoor air quality and comfort levels, contributing to overall well-being.

Adopting a holistic, long-term approach to home energy efficiency ensures that your efforts today will continue to pay dividends for years to come. By prioritising sustainable energy use and continuous improvement, UK homeowners can enjoy the benefits of a more comfortable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly home.

In summary

Embarking on the journey to make your home more energy-efficient is a commendable endeavour that offers a multitude of benefits for UK homeowners. By implementing the strategies outlined in this guide, from upgrading insulation and heating systems to integrating renewable energy sources and adopting water-saving measures, you can significantly reduce your energy bills, enhance your home’s comfort, and contribute to a more sustainable future.

The importance of taking a proactive stance on energy efficiency cannot be overstated. In an era where environmental concerns are paramount, and energy costs continue to rise, optimising the energy use of your home not only makes economic sense but also aligns with the global effort to mitigate climate change. The UK government’s various financial support and incentive schemes further underscore the national commitment to achieving greater energy efficiency and sustainability across the board.

However, the journey doesn’t stop with the installation of a few energy-saving measures. A long-term commitment to maintaining and upgrading your home’s efficiency systems, staying informed about new technologies and practices, and fostering energy-conscious habits within your household are essential to reaping the full benefits of your efforts.

In essence, making your home more energy-efficient is an investment in the future — one that pays dividends not just in terms of reduced utility bills and increased property value but also in contributing to the well-being of our planet. As UK homeowners, we have the opportunity to lead by example, showing that sustainable living and energy conservation are not only possible but practical and rewarding pursuits.

By taking the steps outlined in this guide, you’ll not only be doing your part for the environment but also transforming your home into a more comfortable, cost-effective, and sustainable place to live. The path to energy efficiency is a journey well worth embarking on, offering benefits that extend far beyond the confines of our own homes and into the broader tapestry of global environmental health.


How do I increase my EPC rating?

To improve your Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) rating, focus on enhancing your home’s energy efficiency. Key steps include upgrading insulation in the loft, walls, and floors, installing double-glazed windows, and replacing old heating systems with more efficient models. Consider adding renewable energy sources like solar panels and ensuring all lighting is LED. An upgraded EPC rating not only reflects a more energy-efficient home but can also increase your property’s market value.

Can you make an old house energy-efficient?

Absolutely! Making an old house energy-efficient involves several modifications but is entirely feasible. Start with basic steps such as draught-proofing windows and doors, adding insulation to attics and walls, and updating heating systems to more efficient units. Installing double-glazing and considering internal or external wall insulation can also be effective. Additionally, integrating smart energy management systems can help monitor and control energy use more effectively.

Where is heat lost from a house?

Heat loss in homes typically occurs in several key areas:

Roofs: About 25% of heat is lost through uninsulated roofs.
Walls: Approximately 35% of heat escapes through uninsulated walls, especially in older homes without cavity wall insulation.
Windows and doors: Around 25% of heat can be lost through draughty and single-glazed windows and doors.
Floors and gaps: Up to 15% of heat loss can happen through floors and gaps in skirting boards, especially in older properties.

How can I reduce heat loss in my house?

Reducing heat loss involves addressing the areas where heat escapes. Install quality loft and wall insulation, use draught excluders around doors and windows, and consider double or triple-glazing windows. Insulating your hot water tank and pipes, sealing gaps in floors and skirting boards, and using thick curtains during colder months can also help retain heat.

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