Conveyancing Explained

Conveyancing is an essential aspect of buying or selling property in the UK. Yet, it remains one of the more complex and often misunderstood elements of the real estate process. Simply put, conveyancing is the legal transfer of property from one person to another. Whether you’re a first-time homebuyer, looking to sell a property, or even a seasoned investor, understanding the intricacies of conveyancing can significantly enhance your grasp of the property market and help ensure your transactions proceed as smoothly as possible. This article aims to demystify the conveyancing process, offering clear explanations and practical advice to guide you from the initial stages of making an offer right through to the final handover of keys.

What is conveyancing?

Conveyancing refers to the legal process of transferring ownership of property from one person to another. It’s a crucial step in both buying and selling real estate, ensuring that the transaction is legally valid and that the buyer’s rights are protected. In the UK, conveyancing can only be carried out by a licensed conveyancer or a solicitor.

Roles of key players

Solicitors and licensed conveyancers: These are the legal professionals who manage the conveyancing process. While both can perform the tasks required, solicitors can also offer broader legal advice on matters that might affect the property transaction. Conveyancers are specialists in property but might not handle other legal issues.

Estate agents: While not directly involved in the legal aspects, estate agents facilitate the sale of the property, including negotiation and communication between buyers and sellers.

Surveyors: They are responsible for conducting property surveys that inform the buyer of the physical state of the property. Their reports can influence negotiations and may identify issues that could impede the transaction.

Mortgage lenders: If the purchase involves a mortgage, lenders play a significant role, as they will require specific legal checks and documentation before releasing the funds.

The conveyancing process explained

The conveyancing process in the UK involves several key stages, from the acceptance of an offer to the final transfer of ownership. Understanding each step can help buyers and sellers manage their expectations and prepare for the tasks ahead.

Step-by-step breakdown

Instruction of a conveyancer: Once you have an offer accepted, the first step is to appoint a conveyancer or solicitor who will handle the legal aspects of the transaction. They will gather your personal details, the details of the property, and any terms of sale.

Legal work and searches: Your conveyancer will then begin the legal work, including conducting necessary searches with local authorities and other agencies to uncover any planning, environmental, or other issues that might affect the property.

Review of search results and surveys: After receiving the results of the searches, your conveyancer will review them alongside any surveys you’ve commissioned to identify potential problems or factors that might influence your decision to proceed.

Drafting and negotiating the contract: The seller’s conveyancer drafts the initial contract, which outlines the terms of sale. This includes the sale price, boundaries, fixtures and fittings to be included, and any other relevant details. Both parties’ conveyancers negotiate and finalise these terms.

Exchange of contracts: Once both parties agree on the contract, they sign final copies and exchange them through their conveyancers. At this point, the agreement becomes legally binding, and a deposit (usually 10% of the purchase price) is paid by the buyer.

Preparation for completion: The conveyancer prepares a completion statement, finalises the mortgage details with the lender, and arranges for all funds to be in place.

Completion day: On the agreed day, the full purchase amount is transferred from the buyer’s conveyancer to the seller’s conveyancer. Once the funds have cleared, the seller vacates the property, keys are handed over, and ownership transfers to the buyer.

Post-completion: After completion, the conveyancer will handle the payment of Stamp Duty Land Tax on behalf of the buyer and register the property in the buyer’s name with the Land Registry.

Key timelines

The entire process typically takes between 8-12 weeks from the acceptance of an offer to completion, but this can vary widely depending on the complexity of the transaction and the efficiency of the parties involved.

Understanding these steps provides a clear roadmap of the conveyancing process, helping both buyers and sellers to navigate this critical phase of property transactions more effectively. This knowledge ensures all parties are prepared for the commitments and responsibilities they will face during the conveyancing process.

Choosing the right conveyancer

Selecting a skilled and reliable conveyancer is crucial for a smooth property transaction. The right professional can not only expedite the process but also provide valuable legal guidance and peace of mind. Here are some vital considerations for choosing the right conveyancer in the UK:

Qualifications and experience

Licensed conveyancers vs. solicitors: Decide whether you need a licensed conveyancer, who specialises in property law, or a solicitor, who can handle a broader range of legal services. Both are fully qualified to manage property transactions, but your specific situation may call for the additional expertise of a solicitor.

Experience: Look for a conveyancer with extensive experience in handling property transactions similar to yours. Experienced professionals are likely to anticipate and manage potential issues more effectively.
Accreditation and Regulation

Accreditation: Check if the conveyancer is a member of recognised accreditation schemes like the Law Society’s Conveyancing Quality Scheme (CQS). Membership in such schemes is a sign of quality and adherence to best practices.

Regulation: Ensure that the conveyancer is regulated by the appropriate body, such as the Solicitors Regulation Authority (SRA) or the Council for Licensed Conveyancers (CLC). This provides a layer of protection and recourse should issues arise.

Reviews and recommendations

Client reviews: Online reviews and testimonials can provide insights into the conveyancer’s reliability and quality of service. Pay attention to comments about their communication, efficiency, and problem-solving abilities.

Personal recommendations: Recommendations from friends, family, or real estate professionals can also guide your decision. Personal experiences can often give a clearer picture of what to expect.
Costs and Transparency

Fee structure: Conveyancers can charge a fixed fee, an hourly rate, or a percentage of the property price. Get a detailed quote in advance to understand all the costs involved, including any additional fees for extra tasks.

Transparency: Choose a conveyancer who is clear about their fees and the services included. Transparency from the start can prevent surprises down the line.

Communication and service

Responsiveness: A responsive conveyancer can significantly reduce the stress of buying or selling property. Consider their approach to communication—are they prompt and clear in their responses?

Service level: Assess their willingness to go above and beyond to facilitate your transaction. A dedicated conveyancer should be proactive about keeping you informed and managing any issues that arise.

Taking the time to carefully select a conveyancer based on these criteria can lead to a more efficient and successful property transaction. It ensures that you have a knowledgeable professional by your side, capable of navigating the complexities of property law and the conveyancing process.

Costs Involved in conveyancing

Understanding the costs associated with conveyancing is crucial for anyone entering into a property transaction in the UK. These expenses vary depending on the property value, the complexity of the transaction, and the conveyancer’s fees. Here’s a breakdown of the typical costs you can expect during the conveyancing process:

Conveyancer’s fees

Professional Fees: These are the charges for the conveyancer’s time and expertise. Fees can vary widely based on the property type, location, and the specifics of the transaction. Some conveyancers offer a fixed fee, while others may charge a percentage of the property price or an hourly rate.

Additional Legal Fees: These may be charged for handling more complex issues such as leasehold properties, dealing with a mortgage lender, or conducting more detailed searches.


Search fees: Your conveyancer will conduct several searches to ensure there are no legal impediments to the sale. These typically include local authority searches, environmental searches, and water and drainage searches. Costs can range from £200 to £300 depending on local authority charges.

Land registry fees: Fees for registering the new owner of the property with the Land Registry are based on the property price. These fees can range from £20 to £910.

Bank transfer fees: Also known as Telegraphic Transfer or CHAPS fees, these cover the cost of transferring money between banks securely. Typically, this fee is about £20-£30 per transaction.

Other possible costs

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT): Buyers are responsible for paying SDLT if the property purchase price exceeds certain thresholds. The amount varies depending on whether the buyer is a first-time buyer, the value of the property, and if the property is a second home.

Surveyor’s fees: While not strictly part of conveyancing, most buyers opt to have a property survey conducted to check for structural issues. The cost can vary widely depending on the type of survey chosen, ranging from a few hundred pounds for a basic survey to over a thousand for a full structural survey.

Indemnity insurance: Sometimes required to cover any potential legal issues that arise after completion. Costs depend on the risk involved.

Budgeting tips

Get detailed quotes: Always ask for an itemised quote from your conveyancer to understand precisely what you are being charged for.

Shop around: Compare quotes from several conveyancers to find the best balance of price, service, and expertise.

Factor in all costs: When budgeting for a property purchase, include all potential conveyancing costs to avoid any unexpected financial burdens.

By understanding these costs and budgeting for them in advance, you can ensure a smoother property transaction with fewer surprises. This knowledge not only helps you plan financially but also allows you to evaluate the value of the services provided by your conveyancer.

Common challenges and how to overcome them

The conveyancing process, while necessary, can sometimes present challenges that may delay or complicate property transactions. Being aware of these potential issues and knowing how to address them can help ensure a smoother process. Here are some common challenges encountered during conveyancing and strategies to overcome them:

Delays in the chain

Problem: One of the most common issues in conveyancing is delays caused by a ‘chain’ of buyers and sellers. If one transaction in the chain encounters problems, it can delay all other transactions linked to it.

Solution: Regular communication and coordination through your conveyancer can help manage this risk. It’s also beneficial to keep pressure on other parties to maintain progress and deadlines.
Issues Found During Property Surveys

Problem: Surveys might reveal structural problems or other significant defects that could affect the property’s value or lead to future expenses.

Solution: Negotiate with the seller to either fix the issues before completion or adjust the price to account for the necessary repairs. Alternatively, consider whether to proceed based on the severity of the issues.

Problem: Unexpected legal complications such as discrepancies in property boundaries, rights of way, or previous planning permissions can arise.

Solution: A thorough investigation by your conveyancer during the initial searches and inquiries should uncover such issues. In cases where these issues are identified, legal advice on the implications and possible resolutions is crucial.

Mortgage approval delays

Problem: Mortgage applications can be delayed if there is an issue with the property or the buyer’s financial circumstances.

Solution: Ensure all your financial documents are in order and up to date before applying for a mortgage. Keep in regular contact with your mortgage lender through your conveyancer to promptly address any issues they might raise.

Incomplete seller information

Problem: Sellers may not always provide full or accurate information about the property, which can lead to disputes or delays.

Solution: Your conveyancer should rigorously check all provided information and request further details if discrepancies appear. If necessary, additional searches or inquiries can be conducted.

Preventive measures

Legal indemnity insurance: Consider purchasing legal indemnity insurance to cover potential legal risks that surface after the transaction.

Proactive communication: Maintain open and frequent communication with your conveyancer, ensuring you are kept informed of any developments and understand the implications of the information received.

By preparing for these challenges and implementing effective strategies to manage them, you can significantly reduce the risk of unexpected complications during your property transaction. A proactive approach and a skilled conveyancer can help navigate these issues efficiently, keeping your property purchase or sale on track.

The role of technology in modern conveyancing

The integration of technology into the conveyancing process has significantly transformed how property transactions are handled in the UK. These advancements not only enhance the efficiency of the process but also improve the accuracy and speed of communication and documentation handling. Here’s how technology is currently shaping modern conveyancing:

Online conveyancing platforms

Overview: Digital platforms enable conveyancers and clients to manage their transactions online. These systems allow for electronic submission of documents, online status tracking, and direct communication tools.

Benefits: The primary advantage is convenience—clients can access updates on their case in real-time and communicate with their conveyancer from anywhere. This transparency helps reduce the anxiety associated with waiting for updates and clarifies the process for all parties involved.

Electronic documentation and e-signatures

Overview: The use of electronic documents and digital signatures has been legally accepted and is becoming commonplace in conveyancing practices.

Benefits: This shift helps expedite several steps of the conveyancing process, including the exchange of contracts and the completion phase. It reduces the time spent on postal delays and the risks associated with handling physical documents.

Overview: Automated tools and artificial intelligence (AI) are used to perform property searches and risk assessments more quickly and accurately than traditional methods.

Benefits: These technologies can analyse vast amounts of data to identify potential legal issues with properties more efficiently. This not only speeds up the process but also enhances the thoroughness of searches, potentially reducing future legal risks.

Blockchain technology

Potential: Blockchain technology is being explored for its potential to revolutionise real estate transactions, including conveyancing. By providing a secure, immutable ledger for recording property transactions, blockchain could significantly reduce fraud and increase transparency.

Benefits: Though still in the early stages of adoption, blockchain could enable instant transfers of property ownership that are secure and verifiable by all parties involved, potentially eliminating some of the current complexities and delays associated with property transactions.
Challenges and Considerations

Data security: With the increase in the use of digital platforms and electronic storage of sensitive information, ensuring robust cybersecurity measures is paramount.

Access and inclusion: It’s essential to ensure that all parties in a transaction, regardless of their digital literacy or access to technology, can participate fully in the process.

Legal and regulatory compliance: As technology evolves, so too must the legal frameworks and regulations governing its use in property transactions to ensure that they remain effective and relevant.

The role of technology in conveyancing is continually evolving, offering promising improvements in efficiency, security, and user satisfaction. As these technological tools become more integrated into the legal landscape, they pave the way for a smoother, faster conveyancing process that could significantly benefit all parties involved in property transactions.

The conveyancing process involves various legal checks and searches that are crucial for identifying any legal issues that might affect the property. These checks are designed to protect the buyer by revealing potential problems before the transaction is completed. Understanding what these searches entail and the implications of their results can help you navigate the process more effectively.

Local authority searches: This is one of the most important searches. It provides information about the property regarding local planning decisions, traffic schemes, and future development plans that could affect the property.

Environmental searches: These searches assess the risk of land contamination, flooding, and other environmental issues that might impact the property. It’s particularly important for properties in areas prone to natural disasters or industrial activity.

Water authority searches: This ensures there are no issues with the water supply and sewage disposal at the property. It includes details about public water drains on the property, which can affect building extensions or developments.

Land registry searches: This search confirms the seller’s ownership of the property and reveals any liens, mortgages, or other charges against the property.

Chancel repair search: Although less common today, this search checks if the property is liable for contributions towards the repair of a church parish, which can be an unexpected expense.

Mining searches: Necessary if the property is in an area with historical or current mining activity, this search reveals whether subsidence or other mine-related damages might affect the property.

Understanding the results and their implications on your transaction

Positive results: If searches come back clear, the transaction can proceed smoothly. This is the ideal scenario, indicating that there are no legal impediments to purchasing the property.

Negative results: Discovering issues like potential flooding, contamination, or financial liabilities can affect the property’s value and desirability. Such findings might lead you to reconsider the purchase, negotiate a lower price, or ask the seller to resolve the issues before proceeding.

Risk assessment: Understanding the risks identified in these searches is crucial. For instance, if a property is in a flood risk area, you might need to consider additional insurance costs, which could influence your decision to proceed with the purchase.

Professional advice: Always discuss the results of these searches with your conveyancer or solicitor. They can provide detailed advice on the implications of each issue and how they might affect your ownership rights and responsibilities.

The results of these legal checks and searches form a critical part of your decision-making process when buying a property. They not only affect your immediate transaction but can also impact the long-term enjoyment and value of your property. Being well-informed about these aspects ensures that you are better prepared to make the right decisions during your property purchase.

Finalising the deal

Finalising the deal in a property transaction involves several critical steps that must be meticulously managed to ensure a successful and legally sound transfer of property ownership. This stage of the conveyancing process, from the exchange of contracts to post-completion, marks the culmination of your investment and planning.

The Importance of Contract Exchange and Completion

Contract Exchange: The exchange of contracts is a pivotal moment in the conveyancing process. It involves the formal swapping of signed contracts between the buyer’s and seller’s conveyancers and signifies a legally binding agreement between both parties. At this point:

  • Both parties agree on a completion date.
  • The buyer typically pays a deposit, usually around 10% of the property’s purchase price.
  • Both parties are legally committed, with penalties for withdrawal.

Completion: This is the day when the remaining balance of the purchase price is transferred from the buyer’s conveyancer to the seller’s conveyancer. Completion signifies the official transfer of ownership and usually occurs a few weeks after the exchange of contracts, although it can be sooner if all parties agree. On completion:

  • The buyer becomes the legal owner of the property.
  • The seller must vacate the property and hand over all keys.
  • The buyer can move into the property.

Post-completion procedures: What happens after the sale?

Registration and taxation:

Land registry: After completion, the buyer’s conveyancer will submit an application to the Land Registry to register the buyer as the new owner of the property. This process is crucial as it updates the official records, confirming the buyer’s legal ownership.

Stamp Duty Land Tax (SDLT): The buyer’s conveyancer also handles the payment of any Stamp Duty Land Tax due to the government, if applicable. This must be paid within 14 days after completion in England and Northern Ireland (different deadlines apply in Scotland and Wales).

Handling of documents:

  • The buyer receives a title deed, confirming their ownership.
  • All relevant documents, such as warranties and certificates for any building work done, should be passed to the buyer for future reference.

Utility services:

  • The buyer should arrange to have all utility accounts (water, gas, electricity) transferred to their name from the date of completion.
  • It’s also advisable to take meter readings on the day of completion to ensure accurate billing.


The buyer should ensure that building insurance is in place from the date of exchange, as they are responsible for the property from this point.

Post-completion procedures are designed to tie up all legal and administrative loose ends, ensuring that the buyer enjoys full legal ownership and responsibility for their new property without any unresolved issues. The smooth handling of this final phase is essential for a satisfactory conclusion to the property transaction process.


Understanding the conveyancing process is vital for anyone involved in buying or selling property in the UK. This comprehensive guide has walked you through what conveyancing is, the step-by-step process, the importance of choosing the right conveyancer, the costs involved, common challenges, and the transformative impact of technology. Each of these components plays a crucial role in ensuring that property transactions are conducted smoothly and successfully.

Whether you are a first-time buyer or a seasoned property investor, being well-informed about these aspects can significantly ease the complexity of real estate transactions. It empowers you to make informed decisions, manage expectations, and navigate the legal landscape effectively. Furthermore, the ongoing advancements in technology are set to enhance this process even further, promising faster, more transparent, and more secure transactions in the future.

For those preparing to embark on this journey, remember that choosing a skilled conveyancer and staying proactive throughout the process are key to overcoming potential obstacles. Always seek professional advice tailored to your specific circumstances and be prepared for the financial commitments you will face.

With the right preparation and knowledge, the conveyancing process can be a straightforward path to achieving your property goals. Remember, the key to a successful property transaction lies in understanding the process and actively engaging with it every step of the way.


Is it better to use a solicitor or a conveyancer?

The choice between using a solicitor or a conveyancer depends on your specific needs. Solicitors are qualified to handle a wide range of legal issues and can offer comprehensive legal advice beyond the conveyancing process, which is useful in complex transactions involving legal disputes or unusual property types. Conveyancers, on the other hand, specialise in property law and may offer a more streamlined and potentially cost-effective service for straightforward property transactions. Consider your specific situation, such as the complexity of the transaction and any additional legal advice you might need when making this decision.

Who pays for conveyancing?

The buyer typically pays for their own conveyancing costs, which include legal fees, search fees, and other disbursements related to buying a property. If selling a property, the seller also incurs conveyancing fees for handling the legal aspects of the sale. Each party is responsible for covering the costs of their own conveyancer.

Do you have to pay a conveyancer if the sale falls through?

Whether you have to pay your conveyancer if the sale falls through can depend on the terms of your agreement with them. Some conveyancers offer a ‘no sale, no fee’ policy, which means you may not have to pay their full fee if the transaction does not complete, although you might still be responsible for any out-of-pocket expenses such as search fees. However, if this policy is not in place, you may still be liable for the fees as per your contractual agreement. It’s important to understand the terms of service before hiring a conveyancer.

What happens if a seller pulls out of a house sale?

If a seller pulls out of a house sale before contracts are exchanged, the buyer usually has limited recourse and cannot claim compensation for most expenses, such as survey costs or conveyancing fees. However, once contracts are exchanged, both parties are legally committed to the transaction. If the seller pulls out after this point, the buyer may sue for breach of contract and claim damages that could include additional costs incurred and potentially the difference in cost if they buy a similar property at a higher price. In such cases, legal advice is essential to understand the full range of options available.

What happens if I don’t use a conveyancer?

Choosing not to use a conveyancer can expose you to significant risks. Conveyancing involves complex legal paperwork and detailed searches that are crucial for ensuring the property is legally clear of claims or restrictions. Without a professional’s assistance, you might miss important legal issues, face delays, or encounter costly problems in the future. Professional conveyancers or solicitors ensure that the property transaction complies with all legal requirements, significantly reducing the risk of errors and legal complications.

How much does conveyancing cost?

Conveyancing costs can vary widely based on the property value, the complexity of the transaction, and geographical location. Typically, fees can range from £500 to £1,500 for conveyancing services, with additional disbursements for searches, Land Registry fees, and possibly Stamp Duty Land Tax if applicable. It’s a good idea to get several quotes and understand what each fee includes to compare effectively.

Are conveyancers cheaper than solicitors?

Generally, licensed conveyancers are often cheaper than solicitors because they specialise in property and have a streamlined process for handling transactions. Solicitors, however, can handle a broader range of legal issues which might be necessary for more complex property transactions. Therefore, while conveyancers might be more cost-effective for straightforward cases, solicitors could provide better value if legal complications arise.

Do I need both a conveyancer and a solicitor?

Typically, you do not need both a conveyancer and a solicitor for a property transaction. You would choose one or the other based on your specific needs. If the transaction is straightforward, a conveyancer is usually sufficient. However, if there are likely to be more complex legal issues involved in the transaction, such as disputes over property boundaries or the need for significant negotiation, a solicitor might be more appropriate due to their broader legal training and capabilities.

Can I do my own conveyancing?

Yes, it is legally possible to handle your own conveyancing in the UK. However, doing so carries significant risks. The process involves complex legal and administrative tasks such as conducting property searches, understanding local planning regulations, drafting and reviewing contracts, and registering the property. Any mistakes made during conveyancing can lead to serious legal and financial consequences. Most people choose to hire a professional to ensure that the process is handled correctly and efficiently.

Why is conveyancing necessary?

Conveyancing is necessary to ensure that the transfer of property ownership is legally valid and binding. It protects both the buyer and the seller by ensuring that the seller has the right to sell the property and that there are no outstanding legal claims or restrictions against it. Conveyancing also involves conducting necessary searches to identify any issues that might affect the future use or value of the property, such as local planning restrictions or environmental concerns. Without this process, buyers risk inheriting unresolved legal issues and potential liabilities.

Can the conveyancing process be sped up?

While some aspects of the conveyancing process are dependent on external factors, such as the speed of local authority searches or responses from other parties in the chain, there are ways to expedite the process:

Preparation: Gather all necessary documents and details about the property beforehand to avoid delays once the process starts.

Communication: Maintain clear and frequent communication with your conveyancer and respond promptly to any requests for information or decisions.

Technology: Use a conveyancer who utilises modern technology to manage documents and communications more efficiently.

No Chain: Buying or selling a property with no onward chain can significantly reduce delays.

Agree on Deadlines: Setting clear deadlines with all parties involved can help to keep the process on track.
These strategies can help minimise delays and streamline the conveyancing process, though some elements may still be beyond your control.

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